Plant Breeders’ Rights (PBR) are a form of intellectual property rights by which plant breeders can protect their new varieties in the same way an inventor protects a new invention with a patent.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency administers the Plant Breeders’ Rights Act (1990) and Regulations ( as of 2014-03-04 and last amended on 2012-12-14) which provide legal protection to plant breeders for new plant varieties for up to 18 years.

…this protection extends internationally. Without being granted the right to propagate their selects of haskap by the University of Saskatchewan it is absolutely illegal to do so.

Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 48: 153–159, 1997 by Saila T. Karhu, Agricultural Research Centre, Institute of Horticulture, Toivonlinnantie 518, FIN-21500 Piikki ̈ , Finland


Rooting of axillary shoots of two blue honeysuckle forms, Lonicera caerulea f. caerulea and L. caerulea f. edulis, was studied. Both in vitro and ex vitro rooting procedures were used, and the effects of mineral and auxin concentrations of the rooting media were tested. Reduced mineral nutrient concentrations of modified MS medium allowed more root elongation but did not affect the primary root number. The rooting percentage was high (≥ 90) in the form caerulea microcuttings but low (< 40) in the form edulis microcuttings when not treated with auxin. The rooting frequency and primary root number of the form edulis shoots could be increased up to 100 with 10 roots per microcutting, in the continuous presence of auxin. The continuous auxin treatments repressed the elongation and increased the diameter of primary roots and induced callus formation at the base of the shoots. Differences in root systems were related to equimolar concentrations of the auxins indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-acetic acid and α-naphthaleneacetic acid, but the differences were diminished after one month ex vitro. After transfer ex vitro, several of the roots formed in vitro and some microcuttings died. A high rooting percentage and a good ex vitro survival and root growth of the form edulis microplants were achieved by a 7-day pulse with 4 μM indole-3-butyric acid followed by rooting ex vitro.


To better understand the germination ecophysiology of the genus Lonicera, the dormancy class, temperature requirements for embryo growth and radicle emergence and phenology of seedling emergence were determined for Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx. At maturity, seeds have an underdeveloped embryo (approximately 28% of the length of full-grown embryos). Embryos in fresh seeds grew to full length at 15, 20, 20/10 and 25/15°C within 3 weeks, but failed to grow at ≤ 10°C and at 30°C. Radicles emerged from 86–100% of freshly matured seeds in light at 15, 20, 20/10 and 25/15°C within 28 days, but failed to emerge at 10°C. Radicles emerged equally well in a 12 h photoperiod and in continuous darkness at 25/15°C. Rapid embryo growth and germination over a range of conditions indicate that seeds of this taxon have morphological dormancy (MD); this is the first report of MD in a species of Lonicera. Seeds are dispersed in summer, at which time high temperatures promote embryo growth. Embryos grow to the critical length for germination in approximately 1 month; the peak of seedling emergence occurs in early autumn. Radicles emerged within 2 months from 98% of seeds buried at soil depths of 2 cm and 10 cm in the field in August in Sapporo, Japan; thus, seeds have no potential to form a persistent soil seed bank. However, seeds sown too late in autumn for embryos to grow remained viable and germinated the following summer when temperatures were high enough to promote embryo growth.